10 Interesting Unknown Facts About ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 That Scripted Space History

Chandrayaan-3, which follows Chandrayaan-2, encompasses multiple objectives. These include demonstrating secure and smooth lunar landings, conducting rover missions on the Moon, and performing scientific experiments on-site.


India made history on Wednesday as ISRO’s ambitious Chandrayaan-3 mission successfully landed its Lander Module (LM) on the lunar surface at 6:04 PM. This achievement propels India into an exclusive group of four nations that have achieved this feat and also marks India as the first to reach the previously unexplored southern pole of Earth’s sole natural satellite.

India has successfully acquired the sophisticated capability of achieving gentle lunar landings, joining the ranks of the United States, China, and the former Soviet Union. Chandrayaan-3, which follows Chandrayaan-2, encompasses multiple objectives. These include demonstrating secure and smooth lunar landings, conducting rover missions on the Moon, and performing scientific experiments on-site.

10 Interesting Unknown Facts About ISRO's Chandrayaan-3 That Scripted Space History

10 Interesting Unknown Facts About Chandrayaan-3

1- The cost of ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 mission is approximately ₹650 crore, significantly lower than the expenses incurred by other nations, showcasing India’s efficient and cost-effective approach to space engineering.

2- Heavy Engineering Corporation (HEC) engineers who built the Chandrayaan-3 in Ranchi have not been paid for the past 17 months, news agency IANS reported. In spite of the ongoing problem of withheld wages, the company managed to deliver the mobile launch platform and other vital and intricate equipment earlier than anticipated in December 2022, according to the report.

The HEC, which operates under the Ministry of Heavy Industries as a public sector enterprise, is situated in the Dhurwa locality of Ranchi. Numerous media sources have covered the issue of employees at the company not receiving their salaries for more than a year.

3- The Indian space probe is set to assess the density of near-surface plasma (comprising ions and electrons) within the Moon’s soil. Chandrayaan-3 will additionally monitor seismic activity near the Moon’s landing site. This mission aims to uncover the variety of chemicals present in the lunar soil. An instrument called the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be employed to ascertain the elemental makeup (including elements like magnesium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, calcium, titanium, and iron) of the lunar soil and rocks surrounding the designated landing area.

4- ISRO has implemented certain modifications to enhance the reliability of Chandrayaan-3 compared to its predecessor. The mission comprises the Vikram Lander, named after Vikram Sarabhai, the Pragyan Rover, and a propulsion module. The weight of the Vikram Lander has been augmented by 280kg from its previous iteration, and it is equipped with a greater amount of fuel to ensure it maintains its designated trajectory to the lunar surface.

5- Chandrayaan-3 encompasses three distinct stages: the Earth-Centric Phase, the Lunar-Transfer Phase, and the Moon-Centric Phase.

During the Earth-Centric Phase, the mission involves both the pre-launch preparations and the Earth-bound manoeuvres. These manoeuvres are crucial for adjusting the spacecraft’s orientation and trajectory.

The Lunar-Transfer Phase is centred on the transfer trajectory, a critical step that guides the spacecraft toward its intended lunar orbit.

The Moon-Centric Phase encompasses all actions taken from the insertion of the spacecraft into lunar orbit to the final landing on the Moon’s surface.

6- Upon a successful lunar landing of Chandrayaan-3, the Pragyan Rover will be deployed to conduct exploration activities. The deployment of the rover will be facilitated by a ramp attached to the lander. This six-wheeled rover, operational through solar energy, is equipped with two spectrometers dedicated to analyzing the composition of the lunar surface. It will navigate the landing vicinity for approximately 14 Earth Days, equivalent to the span of one lunar day.

7- Before today, only three nations have accomplished successful lunar landings: the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China. India became the fourth country to achieve a secure landing on the lunar surface and the pioneer in achieving a landing at the Moon’s South Pole.

8- Chandrayaan-3 is a subsequent mission to Chandrayaan-2, with the primary objective of achieving a gentle landing on the lunar south pole. This mission involves a lander and a rover, both of which were launched into space via the LVM3 rocket from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota.

In contrast, Chandrayaan-2, launched in 2019, comprised an orbiter, a lander, and a rover. However, due to a software malfunction, all communication was lost just moments before its planned landing, resulting in a crash. Despite this setback, the mission was not entirely unsuccessful as the orbiter remains operational and continues to supply valuable data to the organization.

9- Taking the reins in January 2022, S Somanath assumed the role of ISRO Chairman and emerged as a pivotal figure in India’s ambitious lunar mission. Before this position, he held directorial roles at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) and the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre. He is currently overseeing crucial ventures such as Chandrayaan-3, Aditya-L1 (a solar study mission), and Gaganyaan (India’s inaugural manned space mission). Other significant individuals contributing to Chandrayaan-3 include Project Director P Veeramuthuvel and Unnikrishnan Nair, Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.

10- Companies involved in the creation of the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft include:

  • Larson and Tubro: This company provided crucial booster segments, including the head end segment, middle segment, and nozzle bucket flange, among other essential components.
  • Mishra Dhatu Nigam: A state-owned entity, this firm supplied vital materials such as cobalt base alloys, nickel base alloys, titanium alloys, and special steels, contributing to the launch vehicle of Chandrayaan-3.
  • BHEL: As a government-owned enterprise, BHEL supplied bi-metallic adaptors utilized in Chandrayaan-3.
  • Godrej Aerospace: This company played a role in producing key engines and thrusters, including the L110 for the core stage and the CE20 engine thrust chamber for the upper stage.
  • Ankit Aerospace: Claiming responsibility for providing alloy steel, stainless steel fasteners, and specially designed titanium bolts.
  • Walchandnagar Industries: This firm was involved in creating booster segments (S200) for the launch vehicle, flex nozzle control tankages, and hardware related to S200 Flex nozzles.

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